A.R., H. and H. J. (1998). Management and culture: the third age of safety.
A review of approaches to organizational aspects of safety health and environment.
A. Williamson and A.-M. Feyer. London, Taylor & Francis. Occupational Injury: Risk, Prevention & Injury.
A literature review that covers studies on the management of safety, health and environment. Concentrates on the literature dealing with the internal management of organizations.
Bird, F. E., Jr. and L. E. Schlesinger (1970). “Safe-behavior Reinforcement.” American Society of Safety Engineers Journal 15: 16-24.
Bradley, J. C. (2005). “How to Select the Right Head and Eye-and-Face Protection.” Occupational Hazards 67(10): 49-63.
Briefly describes why eye and head protection is necessary and suggests that purchasers consider the type of hazard, safety standards and comfort in selecting eye protection.
Brown, B. (2005). “Don’t lose sight of Eye Safety.” Industrial Safety & Hygiene News 39(1): 39-40.
Emphasizes the importance of an effective eyewear program including: reviewing past eye injuries and identifying the causes; completing a hazard assessment in the areas where the injuries are occurring; identifying the needed level of eye protection; and rolling out the new safety efforts with training sessions on the eye protection and where it will be utilized.
Buri, J. (2008). “Best practices to prevent eye injuries.” Industrial Safety & Hygiene News 42(1): 45-46.
Details types of eye protection available including safety glasses, goggles and face shields, and suggests when each should be used. Ultimately, selection of protective eyewear appropriate for a given task should be made based on a hazard assessment of each activity.
Chhokar, S. J. and J. A. and Wallin (1984). “Improving Safety Through Applied Behavior Analysis.” Journal of safety research. 15(4).
This study reports an attempt to improve safety in an industrial plant through the use of applied behavior analysis. Two hypotheses are tested (1) safety performance will improve after safety training and goal setting (2) safety performance will improve even more with feedback. The results of the study confirm both hypotheses; safety performance improves after training is provided and continues to improve with feedback provided to workers. When the feedback is no longer provided, employees’ safety performance decreases.
Cook, S. and T. E. McSween (2000). “The Role of Supervisors in Behavioral Safety Observations.” Professional Safety October: 33-36.
Discusses the role of supervisors in the observation of behavioral safety process. The roles and responsibilities of supervisors in a behavioral safety process are explored with the authors concluding that supervisors and managers should generally conduct observations as part of a behavioral safety process. Details on the 1998 study on the role of leadership within Chevron Canada Resources are also provided in support of this contention. One of the few articles in the bibliography that concentrates on safety managers’ responsibilities, a good complement to other employee-based studies.
Cooper, D. (1998). Improving safety culture : a practical guide. Chichester ; New York, Wiley.
Companies’ focus on accident prevention in the face of large-scale injuries has highlighted the need for proactive approaches to safety management. This approach must take into consideration the interactive relationship between how people behave, their attitudes and perceptions and their work environment. This book first outlines a direction for change based largely on effective leadership, and then analyzes the practical applications of these changes by describing evaluation methods, risk assessment tools, management information systems, and safety campaigns and training in the workplace. The emphasis on practical applications in the book is very helpful in the implementation and measurement of safety programs.
Cox, S. and T. Cox (1996). Safety, systems, and people. Oxford ; Boston, Butterworth-Heinemann.
This book presents a treatment of safety management based on a systems approach. The authors apply general systems theory to the management of safety, emphasizing the need to integrate the management of people within the management of the work environment. What emerges is a holistic approach to safety, with successful management dependent on understanding the whole system rather than its parts.
Fellner, D. J. and B. Sulzer-Azaroff (1984). “Increasing Industrial Safety Practices and Conditions through Posted Feedback.” Journal of Safety Research 15(1): 7-21.
This study examined the effects of posted feedback for improving safety in a paper mill. Data were taken once a week on 24 practices and 7 conditions. In addition, data on injuries with and without lost time were collected monthly. After posting feedback on safe and unsafe conditions for 6 months, more than half of the 17 divisions of the mill showed improvement. Similarly, safe practices increased after feedback was provided for them for 2 months. Most importantly, injuries were cut in half. While a previous study by Sulzer-Azaroff “Increasing Completion of Accident Reports” demonstrated the success of feedback in the completion of accident reports, this study shows the positive impact of posted feedback on accidents themselves.
Fox, C. J. and B. Sulzer-Azaroff (1987). “Increasing Completion of Accident Reports.” Journal of Safety Research 18(2): 65-71.
Authors found that in past studies it was hard to measure the affect of behavioral intervention on worker safety due to the incompleteness of accident reports. In this study a feedback mechanism was introduced where foremen at a paper mill were given feedback notes on their accident reports after they submitted them. These notes commented on the number of items completed, improvements over previous submissions, and other meritorious features. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, the feedback was withdrawn after 7 weeks and then reinstated. Following termination of feedback completeness of reports continued to be monitored for about a year. It was found that reporting performance improved under feedback and deteriorated when it was withdrawn. These findings suggest that a simple feedback note can effectively contribute toward solving the problem of incomplete accident reports. The successful use of feedback in this study is confirmed by other studies cited in this bibliography.
Geller, E. S. (1996). The psychology of safety : how to improve behaviors and attitudes on the job. Radnor, Pa., Chilton Book.
Uses Geller’s previous research on behavioral safety to set forth a set of principles. The book goes on to explain how these research-based principles can be applied to safety problems. It suggests, among other things, to involve employees more in the safety process in order for managers to learn more about the safety environment, i.e. a more bottom-up approach to safety management is required.
Geller, E. S. (1996). Working safe : how to help people actively care for health and safety. Radnor, Pa., Chilton Book.
Explores the human dynamics of occupational health and safety and shows how they can be managed to improve safety performance. Included in the text are a number of different approaches to safety management. Particular attention is paid to approaches that offer behavior-based intervention strategies.
Geller, E. S. (1999). “Sustaining participation in a safety improvement process: Ten relevant principles from behavioral science.” Professional Safety 44(9): 24-29.
Presents 10 research-based principles that address producing more long lasting positive change in safety behavior. Principles such as “self-perception is defined by behavior” and “self-persuasion is key to long-term behavior change” are explored. The author relies on psychological assessments of behavior rather than empirical studies and analysis. It would be interesting to follow-up a read of this article with an empirical study on behavior-based safety cited elswhere in this bibliography to see if these principles apply.
Geller, E. S. (2001). Beyond safety accountability : how to increase personal responsibility. Rockville, Md., ABS Consulting/Government Institutes.
Explains how to develop an organizational culture that encourages people to be accountable for their work practices and to embrace a higher sense of personal responsibility. The author begins by thoroughly explaining the difference between safety accountability and safety responsibility. He then examines the need of organizations to improve safety performance, discusses why such performance improvement can be achieved through a continuous safety process, as distinguished from a safety program, and provides the practical tools you can use to build personal responsibility in your workplace
Geller, E. S. (2001). Building successful safety teams : together everyone achieves more. Rockville, Md., ABS Consulting/Government Institutes.
Geller, E. S. (2001). The psychology of safety handbook. Boca Raton, FL, Lewis Publishers.
The contention of the book is that safety cannot be effectively improved within an organization without taking into account human behaviors and attitudes. The book applies research-based principles relying on psychology to drive home the point that human behavior can be influenced in a positive way with regard to safety. This book expands the analysis from Geller’s 1996 book The psychology of safety : how to improve behaviors and attitudes on the job . Purchase this book over the 1996 text for a more up-to-date version, although the books are virtually the same.
Geller, E. S. (2002). The participation factor : how to increase involvement in occupational safety. Des Plaines, Ill., American Society of Safety Engineers.
The book’s main thesis is that increasing involvement through participation at all levels leads to improved occupational safety. The author suggests that the inability of many safety programs to cultivate this high level of participation contributed to their failures. For safety programs to be successful employees must believe in the program, the program should emphasize open interpersonal communication and the program should involve employees at all levels in the safety process.
Geller, E. S. (2005). People-based safety : the source. Virginia Beach, VA, Coastal Training Technologies Corp.
This book emphasizes the need to address intrapersonal and interpersonal factors in improving workplace safety. It focuses on four key skills that promote safety – Acting, Coaching, Thinking and Seeing (ACTS).
Geller, E. S. and J.J. Keller & Associates. (1998). Incident analysis : implementation guide. Neenah, Wis., J.J. Keller & Associates, Inc.
Guide used to educate employees/managers on incident analysis.
Geller, E. S. and J.J. Keller & Associates. (1998). Practical behavior-based safety : step-by-step methods to improve your workplace. Neenah, WI, J.J. Keller & Associates, Inc.
Comprehensive behavior-based safety material including 4 modules: Module One: Introduction & Overview Of Behavior-Based Safety — provides an intro to the theory of behavior based safety and practical ways in which it can be used within any company; Module Two: Behavior-Based Observation & Feedback — examines specific behavior-based observation and feedback techniques; Module Three: Motivating Safe Behavior — provides additional training information on how to use intervention tools to change behaviors; Module Four: Maintaining Safety Improvement — provides tools (such as perception surveys and behavior modeling analysis) for evaluating and measuring the success of the program.
Geller, E. S., J. H. Williams, et al. (2001). Keys to behavior-based safety. Rockville, MD, ABS Consulting, Government Institutes.
This book provides a collection of 28 writings from Scott Geller’s regular column in Industrial Safety and Hygiene News, Geller’s associates at Safety Performance Solutions and from the American Society of Safety Engineers’ annual conferences. Organized into seven chapters, these writings examine real-world examples of successful behavior-based safety programs.
Grindle, A. C., A. M. Dickinson, et al. (2000). “Behavioural safety research in manufacturing settings: a review of the literature.” Journal of Organizational Behaviour Management 20: 29-68.
Reviews 18 behavioral safety programs implemented in manufacturing settings according to (a) settings, (b) subjects, (c) experimental design, (d) dependent variables, (e) intervention effectiveness, (f) miscellaneous effects, (g) maintenance, (h) integrity and reliability, and (i) social validity. Generally finds that behavioral safety programs have the effect of reducing accidents; are accepted by workers during and after; and have a lasting affect even after safety programs are discontinued. The review also discusses the various measurement of independent variables, i.e. how do you measure safety? Greater study of the importance of these variables is encouraged.
Guastello, S. J. (1993). “Do we really know how well our occupational accident prevention programs work?” Safety Science 16: 445-463.
This article summarizes evaluation data for ten types of accident prevention program drawn from 53 program evaluations: personnel selection variables, technological interventions, behavior modification programs, poster campaigns, quality circles, exercise and stress management, near-miss accident reporting, comprehensive ergonomics, the International Safety Rating System (ISRS), and the Finnish national control program. Personnel selection techniques found to be the least effective while comprehensive ergonomics programs were found to be the most effective. Comprehensive ergonomics is akin to developing a “culture of safety” across the organization including such elements as safety seminars and accurate safety record keeping and follow-up. For this author it takes behavioral factors to the next level.
Haight, J. M. and American Society of Safety Engineers. (2008). The safety professionals handbook : technical applications. Des Plaines, IL, American Society of Safety Engineers.
This is the most detailed book for the practical use of safety professionals in this bibliography. It addresses 7 sections: Risk assessment and hazard control, emergency preparedness, fire prevention and protection, industrial hygiene, personal protective equipment, and ergonomics and human factors engineering. Each one of these sections is divided into the following topic areas: regulatory issues, applied science and engineering principles, benchmarking and performance measurement, cost analysis and budgeting, and best practices.
Johnson, P. (2008). “Safety eyewear for Extreme Environments.” Industrial Safety & Hygiene News 42(6): 52-55.
Emphasizes the importance of specialty eye protection including fog resistant lenses, tints, and dual coating technology. This specialty protection allows companies to tailor their eye protection needs, especially firms whose employees require protection in extreme environments.
Johnston, J. J., G. T. H. Cattledge, et al. (1994). “The efficacy of training for occupational injury control.” Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 9: 147-158.
Studies of the effectiveness of training are reviewed, and successful components of training programs are described.
Komaki, J. (1986). Promoting Job Safety and Accident Prevention. Health and Industry: A Behavioral Medicine Perspective. M. F. Cataldo and T. J. Coates. New York, John Wiley & Sons: 301-19.
Komaki, J., K. K. Barwick, et al. (1978). “A Behavioral Approach to Occupational Safety: Pinpointing and Reinforcing Safe Performance in a Food Manufacturing Plant.” Journal of Applied Psychology 63(4): 434-445.
Krause, T. R. (1997). The behavior-based safety process : managing involvement for an injury-free culture. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.
The book first familiarizes the reader with the concept/history of behavior-based safety. This is followed by a review of issues involving the implementation of behavior-based safety including employee roles and responsibilities, observation and data management.
Krause, T. R. (2005). Leading with safety. Hoboken, N.J., Wiley-Interscience.
Develops models for safety leadership in organizations, including defining appropriate supervisory and employee roles. Suggests that safety performance is dependent on quality of leadership which ultimately benefits the performance of the organization as a whole.
Krause, T. R., J. H. Hidley, et al. (1984). “Behavioral Science Applied to Industrial Incident Prevention.” Professional Safety 29(7): 21-27.
Krause, T. R., J. H. Hidley, et al. (1993). “Implementing the Behavior-Based Safety Process in a Union Environment: A Natural Fit.” Professional Safety 38(6): 26-31.
Matela, D. (2008). “Watch Out: The Importance of Protecting Your Eyes In the Industrial Workplace.” Occupational Hazards 70(10): 64-66.
Emphasizes the importance of protecting the eyes of workers, both through engineering controls and via personal protective equipment (PPE) such as safety glasses, goggles and hybrid eye safety products. The article has a lot of quick and useful facts on eye safety e.g.-eye injuries alone cost more than $300 million per year in lost production time, medical expenses and worker compensation.
Mcafee, R. B. and A. R. Winn (1989). “The use of incentives/feedback to enhance workplace safety: a critique of the literature.” Journal of Safety Research 20: 7-19.
Because accidents cost employers $33 billion a year, many organizations have been searching for new approaches to enhancing safety. One of these is the use of positive reinforcement and feedback. This paper reports the findings of 24 studies which have examined the effectiveness of this approach in industry. All studies found that incentives or feedback were successful in improving safety conditions or reducing accidents. The limitations of these studies and avenues for future research are discussed.
McSween, T. E. (2003). Value-based safety process : improving your safety culture with behavior-based safety. Hoboken, N.J., Wiley-Interscience.
Suggests that there is currently and over-emphasis on results/process in management directives while too little attention is paid to an emphasis on values. These values can be incorporated into a simple mission statement leading to specific behavioral policies that can help shape employee behavior. This book is about implementing this values-based safety process in a company. It provides a detailed plan for managers on how to implement and maintain a sustainable safety process. It delves into the minutia of safety plans that most of the articles cited in this bibliography assume will take place as long as the right initial conditions are met. Read James Roughton’s book Developing an Effective Safety Culture first to get a more abstract understanding of occupational safety and then read this book to figure out how to incorporate those principles into a sucessful implementation plan.
Osley, E. L. (2006). “Looking Good.” Industrial Safety & Hygiene News 40(1): 36-39.
Notes that the year 1989 marked a turning point for the eyewear industry. That year, ANSI established new safety eyewear standards that were based on the performance of the eyewear, not on the design of the eyewear. This allowed manufacturers to develop eyewear with greater style and comfort while conforming to ANSI standards. These creative designs have helped increase innovation and help drive compliance.
Petersen, D. (1996). Safety by objectives : what gets measured and rewarded gets done. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Demonstrates how accountability and measurement drive better safety performance at all levels of the organization and argues that measuring accident prevention efforts and rewarding effective safety performance produces better workplace safety. To accomplish this the author first defines acountability, then offers a guide to determine what works in various organizations and then explores the implementation of accountability systems.
Ravetto, F. (2006). “FIT and FUNCTION.” Industrial Distribution 95(10): 6S-10S.
A brief feature on the functional use of eye protection. Injury prevention through the use of safety glasses is highlighted.
Ray, P. S., J. L. Purswell, et al. (1993). “Behavioral Safety Program: Creating a New Corporate Culture.” International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 12: 193-198.
Reber, R. A. and J. A. Wallin (1984). “Validation of Behavioral Measures of Occupational Safety.” Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 5(2): 69-77.
An attempt is made to illustrate directly the relationship between a behavioral measure of safety and occupational injury rates. Behaviorally specific safety rules were established for 12 departments, involving 107 employees of a farm machinery manufacturing company. Trained observers obtained baseline data on the percentage of employees in each department working in complete compliance with the rules. The results showed a significant inverse relationship between behavioral performance and overall injury rate, and between behavioral performance and lost-time injury rate. Applied behavioral analysis could provide a valid and reliable measure of safety that would permit more systematic evaluation of the efficacy of various safety campaigns.
Rodriguez, A. (2007). “Know your EYE safety issues.” Industrial Safety & Hygiene News 41(6): 41-43.
This article briefly examines eye protection needs at Cooper Farms poultry plant in OH. It demonstrates how different types of specialized eye protection can suit the needs of different industries. Fog-free and tinted eye protection are highlighted in the article.
Roughton, J. E. and J. J. Mercurio (2002). Developing an effective safety culture : a leadership approach. Boston, Butterworth-Heinemann.
The book starts off by taking an in depth look at incident costs in an attempt to quantify losses experienced as a result of unsafe behavior at work. It emphasizes the need to develop a comprehensive culture of safety and pays great attention to the role of management in directing this. Managment principles explored include leading by example, generating shared goals to get the organization moving in the same direction, communicating change effectively, and providing visible leadership. The authors emphasize the need for employee participation as well noting that organizations are more social than individual by nature. It concludes with a description of safety and health programs that support the safety culture and how to measure their success. A studied and comprehensive look at safety cultures.
Roughton, J. E. and N. E. Whiting (2000). Safety training basics : a handbook for safety training program development. Rockville, Md., Government Institutes.
Simplifies the task of complying with over 100 OSHA training requirements and provides managers with specific guidelines for establishing an effective training program. Also explains how to develop a site-specific training program by matching training content and methods to management needs and job hazards.
Sherrard, L. J. (2008). “Eyes on the Prize.” Occupational Health & Safety 77(2): 74-78.
The article discusses the factors to consider in auditing the safety of the workplace and in ensuring whether employees wear all the gear specified in a company’s rules. According to the author, vision protection should be prioritized in companies because facial injury can hamper employees’ ability to work. Also notes that supervisors should walk through the job site to determine if the necessary protection is being worn.
Sherrard, L. J. (2008). “Make Sure Workers Get the Message.” Occupational Health & Safety 77(10): 31-36.
The article discusses the importance of eye protection of industrial workers in the U.S. An injured employee means lost time, extensive medical treatment and lost production. Valuable employee skills are lost and either other employees will have to make it up, creating additional stress, or extra money spent on a replacement.
Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1982). Behavioral Approaches to Occupational Health and Safety. Handbook of Organizational Behavior Management. L. W. Frederiksen. New York, John Wiley & Sons: 505-537.
Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1987). “The Modification of Occupational Safety Behavior.” Journal of Occupational Accidents 9: 177-97.
The thesis of this paper is that performance on the job is governed in large part by the planned and unplanned contingencies of reinforcement and punishment, that have been or are in effect. To diminish unsafe behavior, those contingencies need to be identified, and rearranged in order to promote safe behavior instead. In other words, if workers expect to be rewarded for safe behaviors they may be more likely to work safely. By influencing the consequences of actions managers may be able to influence the actions themselves. A good deal of attention is also paid to research design in this article such as employee interviews and observational techniques.
Sulzer-Azaroff, B. and J. Austin (2000). “Does BBS work? Behavior-based safety and injury reduction: A survey of the evidence.” Professional Safety 45(7): 19-24.
Finds that even though there is much variation in behavior-based safety programs they work in almost all cases studied-32 of 33 case studies referenced in the article showed lower incident rates after behavior-based programs were introduced. This article supports the contention(s) regarding BBS of the majority of authors cited in the bibliography namely, that BBS programs are versatile (can be tailored to specific environments/industries) and successful in reducing incident rates.
Sulzer-Azaroff, B. and M. C. de Santamaria (1980). “Industrial Safety Hazard Reduction through Performance Feedback.” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 13(2): 287-95.
The results of this study suggest that a simple, natural “feedback package” can be effective in reducing frequencies of specific hazards in a small industrial plant. Incident rates dropped when supervisors began to offer notes on company lettehead describing the # of accidents that had occured along with congratulatory or corrective measures. The result of this study, while confined to a small industrial plant, give an indication of the successful use of feedback in other plants, factories and industries.
Swartz, G. and National Safety Council. (2000). Safety culture and effective safety management. [Itasca, Ill.], National Safety Council.
A compilation of readings about safety structures and how they function in organizations. Discusses what a safety culture is, what elements within organizations influence safety cultures and what methods can bring about positive cultural change. Lots of industries are discussed including mining, shipping, chemical, manufacturing and technology.
Toole, T. M. and J. A. Gambatese (2002). “Primer on Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards.” Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction 7(2): 56-60.
Waring, A. (1995). Safety management systems. New York, Chapman & Hall.
Detailed reference guide to the design, development, implementation and auditing of relevant management systems. Lot of case studies and examples to demonstrate what can be achieved and how to achieve it are developed, bringing to life safety problems and issues faced by many people.
Zwerling, C., L. H. Daltroy, et al. (1997). “Design and conduct of occupational injury intervention studies: a review of evaluation strategies.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 32: 164-79.
This paper reviews the literature on the design, conduct, and evaluation of occupational injury interventions. It calls into question the design of existing studies of injury interventention, specifically their lack of randomization and poor use of qualitative measures. The authors reccommend greater use of these qualitative methods including interviewing, observation, and focus groups to provide a better understanding of how interventions operate in the work environment.